Sunday, November 20, 2016

Bitcoins received for this blog: 2 years later

Two years ago (November 2014) I proposed to send me bitcoins in "How to help my projects? Send me bitcoins!".


After 2 years I got 3 donations for a total amount of 0.02858649 BTC (or approximately 19.37€). The 3 transactions are public and can be seen at A great thanks to my 3 donors.

This is not a huge amount. In comparison I received 100.27€ from Flattr in 6 years (see "How to help my projects?").

SystemDurationTotal amountMean
Flattr6 years100.27 €16.71 €/year
Bitcoin2 years19.37 €9.67 €/year

The problem with Flattr (as I explained in "My Flattr experience") is that the funds are automatically "reinvested" so the real result after 6 years is 0€ in my pockets.

Adsense? No!

Google just proposed me to enrol in the AdSense program. Their estimation is a gain of 10,18 € per month.

Bonne nouvelle ! Votre compte répond aux critères requis pour bénéficier du traitement AdSense accéléré.
Vous devriez pouvoir gagner jusqu'à 10,18 € par mois*. Faites en sorte que votre blog vienne grossir les rangs de ces millions d'autres qui rapportent de l'argent grâce à AdSense. S'inscrire

*Les revenus mentionnés ne sont que des estimations basées sur le trafic récemment enregistré par votre blog. Nous ne pouvons en garantir le montant. Les comptes et les revenus AdSense doivent également respecter le Règlement du programme et les Conditions d'utilisation AdSense.

But since I do not like ads in web pages (and I use an advertisement blocker) I will not use AdSense or any other advertising system.


Please continue sending bitcoins. My bitcoin address is at the bottom of each blog page.

Sunday, November 6, 2016

ATR statistics: TD1 - Structural, encodes Y2 and T

Article from the series "ATR statistics"

TD1 - Structural, encodes Y2 and T

The ISO 7816-3 specification is not public. So I can't copy/paste part of the text. I will use Wikipedia instead.

From Wikipedia
Interfaces bytes TDi for i≥1, if present, are structural.
TDi encodes in its 4 high-order bits the presence of at most 4 other interface bytes: TAi+1 (resp. TBi+1, TCi+1, TDi+1) follow, in that order, if the 5th (resp. 6th, 7th, 8th) bit of TDi is 1.
TDi encodes in its 4 low-order bits (4th MSbit to 1st LSbit) an integer T, in range [0..15]. T = 15 is invalid in TD1, and in other TDi qualifies the following TAi+1 TBi+1, TCi+1, TDi+1 (if present) as global interface bytes. Other values of T indicates a protocol that the card is willing to use, and that TAi+1 TBi+1, TCi+1, TDi+1 (if present) are specific interface bytes applying only to that protocol. T = 0 is a character-oriented protocol. T = 1 is a block-oriented protocol. T in the range [3..14] is RFU.
Historical note: provision for dynamically qualifying interface bytes as global using T = 15 did not exist in ISO/IEC 7816-3:1989.

89943.39 %
0x8045922.15 %
0x8137217.95 %
0x40954.58 %
0x00693.33 %
0x91462.22 %
0xC0452.17 %
0xC1271.30 %
0x10221.06 %
0x50160.77 %
0x0190.43 %
0x0E80.39 %
0x1120.10 %
0x1F10.05 %
0x3110.05 %
0x3F10.05 %

TD1 (as the other TDi bytes) is structural and indicates:
  • How to interpret the other ATR bytes
  • What communication protocol the card wants to use

For 43% of the ATRs no TD1 is present. So no other TA2, TB2, TC2 or TD2 is present and no protocol is defined so the default T=0 will be used.

For 22% of ATRs TD1 = 0x80 so bit 8 is set to indicate that a TD2 is present and T=0 is used. One such ATR is 3B 80 80 01 01.

For 17% of ATRs TD1 = 0x81 so, as in the previous case, TD2 is present but T=1 is used. One such ATR is 3B 82 81 31 76 43 C0 02 C5

For 5% of ATRs TD1 = 0x40 so TC2 is present and T=0 is used. One such ATR is 3B 85 40 20 68 01 01 00 00

I will not document all the other cases. I let this exercise to the reader.

One special case is TD1 = 0x?E to indicate the T=14 protocol.

From ISO 7816-3:
The type T refers to a transmission protocol and/or qualifies interface bytes.
  • T=0 refers to the half-duplex transmission of characters specified in clause 10.
  • T=1 refers to the half-duplex transmission of blocks specified in clause 11.
  • T=2 and T=3 are reserved for future full-duplex operations.
  • T=4 is reserved for an enhanced half-duplex transmission of characters.
  • T=5 to T=13 are reserved for future use by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17.
  • T=14 refers to transmission protocols not standardized by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17.
  • T=15 does not refer to a transmission protocol, but only qualifies global interface bytes.

As you can see in the list above "T=14 refers to transmission protocols not standardized by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17." In my list T=14 is used only by pay TV cards like 3B 9F 21 0E 49 52 44 45 54 4F 20 41 43 53 03 83 95 00 80 55.

TD1 = 0x?F is also another special case to indicate T=15, which is not a protocol, and will change the interpretation of the following ATR bytes.